Sahara Solar Breeder Foundation
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1st Asia-Arab Sustainable Energy Forum (AASEF) Concludes in Nagoya

The Asia-Arab Sustainable Energy Forum, which took place in Nagoya on August 23 -25 with 120 people from 10 countries, along with research groups from Chubu University, the University of Tokyo and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, convened to discuss various aspects of sustainability in the energy supply and the Sahara Solar Breeder (SSB) Project, whose aim is to supply the world with electricity generated from solar power in the Sahara Desert.

The concluding statements are:

- Basic technologies for the direct reduction of SiO2 purified from desert sands into solar Si have been designed and have reached an experimental verification stage.

- We can expect dramatic cost reductions in the fabrication of Si solar cells with this new Si technology, making photovoltaic (PV) power generation in the desert promising.

- Photovoltaic power generation from the desert should benefit local communities and be extended to the world.

- Thanks to the establishment of a basic understanding on high Tc superconductors and the advent of low cost superconducting tapes, development of various applications such as superconducting dc transmission and distribution systems is becoming reality.

- Solar Breeder (SSB) technology, which combines desert power generation and global dc superconducting transmission and distribution, is vitally important to a sustainable energy future.

The 2nd and 3rd Asia-Arab Sustainable Energy Forums will be held in Algeria next year and Hirosaski, Japan in 2013.

The SSB Project, which began in 2008, proposes that silicon be extracted from desert sand, and used to manufacture a large number of solar cells at low cost. Energy from the strong sunlight in the desert will be converted into electricity, and supplied to cities in North Africa and Europe with low loss by using high-temperature superconductors.

In superconductivity, when a material is cooled below a certain temperature, its electrical resistance becomes zero. This enables power to be transmitted at least ten times more efficiently than with conventional high-voltage power lines. Last year, Chubu University performed an experiment, transmitting a DC current for 200 m through low-resistance cables using superconducting materials. This experiment was a world-first success.

Solar cells are currently topical as an inexhaustible energy source that does not use fossil fuel, but as their manufacturing cost is high, they have not yet become widespread. Therefore, research on new technology is being pursued urgently. In the SSB Project, solar cell plants will be built near the Sahara Desert and other deserts worldwide, prior to supplying electricity.

AASEF delegate Professor Sataro Yamaguchi of Chubu University said, "Superconducting technology is evolving, and is now close to being practical. Japan, which has the most advanced superconducting technology, should proceed with co-development proactively. Following the nuclear accident due to the East Japan Earthquake, energy must be safe. The SSB Project will make that technically possible in about five years."

SSB Project Co-founder Professor Hideomi Koinuma of the University of Tokyo said, "The SSB Project is at the basic research stage, but it could become a new model for energy supply to replace fossil fuels. Although there are some economic issues, we would like to develop the Project by 2030."

The group will encourage oil-producing countries to provide funding, in anticipation of oil resource depletion.

What is Sahara Solar Breeder Project?

In recent years, PV is proposed as a competitive energy policy and a step forward to the target of sustainable development and environmental friendly energy source. In this contribution a particular attention is being given to the joint event that bring together the relevant parties, the University of Sciences and Technology of Oran (USTO), Japan International Corporation Agency (JICA) and Japan Science and Technology (JST) to develop a long-term vision and strategy to boost the ideas for the realization and the development of the Sahara Solar Breeder (SSB) project (proposed at G8+5 Academies meeting in Rome, 2009). SSB advocates the view of undertaking collaborative basic, applied and development research, as well as industrial production and technical, commercial and financial support services to implement photovoltaic solar energy systems.

The development and realisation of the SSB project, in the Sahara of Algeria which covers a total area of 2,048,297 km
2, approximately 86% of the total area of the country, will tackle the key challenges and issues related to the field of PV putting forward the material R/D perspective and promoting innovative processes for solar silicon with a focus on the utilisation of Sahara sands. Three Ss should be the national energy policy drivers of Algeria namely: Solar, Sand and Space. This event also seeks to identify the most important challenges facing both the research and economic sectors and put forward new strategies that will identify the required skills to transform the research prospects based on the analysis and prospect of elementary processes and system design.

In August the 4th 2010, USTO and JICA formed a joint group and signed a series of Memorandum of understanding and bilateral agreements to announce the creation of a Sahara Solar Energy Research Center (SSERC), at the University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO), to pursue the realisation and the development of PV plant at the chosen experimental site at the University of Saida in the south west of Algeria also known as the gate of the Algerian Sahara.

The most important objectives of SSB’s energy policy and its portfolio include five basic strategies that are:

  • Basic, applied, practical research and development, in Japan, North Africa, the Middle East, Africa, and other regions of the world;
  • Industrial production of silicon from sand;
  • Industrial production of cells, modules, panels, and other PV devices,
  • Building, operating, networking and monitoring Very Large Scale Photovoltaic Power Stations (VLS-PVPS);
  • Environment monitoring and gradual implementation of SSB.

Through their active implication at the AASEF, the Algerian team (from USTO, Saida and Adrar) has shared many of its experience with the rest of the participants. The Algerians were able to test their capacities to operate the changes expected from them in terms of social skills (attitudes), to know (knowledge), of know-how (professional skills) and to know how to make ( institutional skills). The participation of the Algerians and their interactive methodology, which facilitated their implication in plenary and in SSB session, have allowed them to exchange on their diverse queries with regard to their personal domain of research as well as their respective experiences within the project SSB.

  • Energy/Climate security with global justice and development of civilisation for whole world,
  • Clever global development strategy for solving the energy and climate problems with existing solar grade Silicon production from Sahara sand technology for a world in a sustainable way.
SSB: so that the progress serves better the future of prosperity and the security of the humanity

Sahara Solar Breeder Foundation Official Website:
Reference (Video):

Media Contact:
SSB Project
Yojiro Kitamura
Industry-government-academia Alliance Advisor and Global Cooperation Coordinator

English articles
Sahara Sand To Be Used In Japanese, Algerian and Tunisian Solar Cell Project
Thursday, December 16, 2010

TOKYO - Japanese scientists are beginning research projects to extract silica from sand in the Sahara Desert that will be used to make solar batteries, in partnership with local organizations in Algeria and Tunisia, Nikkei reporterd today.

The effort grew out of the Sahara Solar Breeder Project, in which Hideomi Koinuma, a visiting professor at the University of Tokyo, plays a key role, according to the paper.

The abundant sunlight in both Algeria and Tunisia makes them good places for solar power generation, and plenty of sand from which to extract silicon. The researchers hope to mass-produce the key material used in solar cells at low cost.

"They aim to turn silica from sand into silicon of more than 99.9999% purity. Sand in the Sahara is well-suited for that because the sand has a high silica content and fewer impurities than sand from other places."

Organizations from Japan and Algeria have agreed on the joint research, which will run into 2015. Participants include the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the National Institute for Materials Science, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Hirosaki University, the Algerian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research and an Algerian university. JICA is expected to provide 300 million yen for the research, Nikkei said.

The University of Tokyo and others set up a foundation earlier this month to promote the effort, together with Tunisian entities from the public and private sectors.

Japanese scientists envision a large solar power plant in the Sahara Desert that can power seawater desalination equipment, and supply electricity to Europe through superconducting cables.

PanOrient News

Japanese scientists to solve world's energy crisis, with sand
Solar power plants in the Sahara Desert could resolve our energy predicament
25 November, 2010

A team of Japanese scientsts believe they have developed a way to provide 50 percent of the world's energy needs from one source by 2050 -- by building solar power plants in the Sahara desert.

Deserts contain abundant silica, the raw material for silicon, and the scientists' plan, called "The Sahara Solar Breeder Project," involves building silicon-manufacturing plants powered by the sun, which can then breed into further plants and more power.

Training local scientists
According to DigInfo TV, the sun delivers 10,000 times more energy to the Earth than mankind currently uses, so catching 0.01 percent of it would create a surplus.

The Japanese team includes The University of Tokyo Hirosaki University, NIMS Tokyo Institute of Technology, Chubu University and the National Institute of Informatics and they have begun working with partners in Algeria.

"The total research expenditure will be \100 million annually for five years, but that won't be enough to complete the project," says Hideomi Koinuma, guest professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. "Nevertheless, we want to establish basic technology for providing an ultimate solution to the energy problem, which must be done before a global crisis occurs."

The project will require cooperation from countries across North Africa and the Japanese scientists have a second goal, to train the scientists of the future in the region.

"Rather than just bringing well-understood technology from developed countries to developing ones and teaching people how to use it, it's important to do R&D together, right from the start, on technology that isn't yet understood. Because technology hasn't yet been established for making silicon from desert sand, then using it to make solar cells, our aim is to work together from the basic research stage, so we can discover and nurture talented scientists and engineers in Africa," explains Koinuma.

Sahara Seen as Key to Self-Replicating Energy
Project Aims to Supply Half of the World's Energy by 2050
Dec. 1, 2010
(Discover)   It’s such a fertile time in the green technology sector, solar power plants may soon begin reproducing.

Using two resources that the Sahara has plenty of, sun and sand, the Sahara Solar Breeder Project hopes to build factories that will refine the sand’s silica  into silicon. That silicon will be used to build solar panels, which will power more silica-refining and solar panel factories, which will be able to build more solar panels, and on and on and on.

The potential for exponential growth allows for some extreme optimism: The project’s leaders say they could build enough power stations to meet half of the world’s energy needs by 2050. Project leader Hideomi Koinuma believes the project is key to solving the world’s energy crisis, saying:

"If we can use desert sand to make a substance that provides energy, this will be the key to solving the energy problem. This is probably doable. Moreover, the energy we continually receive from the Sun is 10,000 times the energy currently used by mankind. So if we can utilize 0.01% of it skillfully, we won’t have a shortage of energy, but a surplus.” [DigInfo TV]

The Sahara desert is about the size of the United States, but instead of being full of people and farms and towns the Sahara is almost empty of everything. Everything except sand, that is. Three and a half million square miles of it.

"From the viewpoints of quality, quantity and chemistry, Sahara sand is hard to beat for use as silicon for solar cells,” Koinuma says. [New Scientist]

Though Koinuma is bursting with enthusiasm, desert sand has never been used to produce silicon-based solar panels before, so the team will have to perfect that technology first. Once they start building factories, they’ll have to cope with environmental hazards in the desert like sandstorms and shifting dunes.

If all of those endeavors are successful, the energy produced by the station will still need to be transferred from the desert to areas that need it, which requires superconducting power lines kept cold by liquid nitrogen-a technology which is difficult to handle in the best of circumstances, let alone in the middle of the empty desert. Koinuma believes the superconducting lines would be cost-effective, though another company called the Desertec Foundation is working on the same problem with a different approach.

"There is not really a need for superconductors. By using high-voltage direct current transmission lines it is possible to transport clean power from the deserts over long distances to centers of consumption,” says the Desertec spokesman - adding that the technology is already used in dozens of projects worldwide. “Transmission losses are fairly low - around 3 per cent per 1000 kilometres. Unlike superconductors, there is no need for cooling, while power transmission costs are just 1¢ to 2¢ per kilowatt-hour.” [New Scientist]

It will be interesting to see how the two projects play out-in the Sahara, there’s plenty of room for competition.

The Sahara Solar Breeder Project is currently supported by Japan’s International Cooperation Agency and Science and Technology Agency, universities in Algeria, and the International Research Project on Global Issues, which is providing funding for the problem-solving phase-a little over a million dollars a year for five years.

Here’s the in-depth video from DigInfo TV:

Sun and sand breed Sahara solar power
* 15:03 30 November 2010 by Michael Fitzpatrick

Life might take a hammering on the sun's earthly anvil, the Sahara desert, but the two most abundant resources the desert has to offer – sunlight and sand – could help solar power to "breed" and thrive there.

The Sahara Solar Breeder Project is a joint initiative by universities in Japan and Algeria that aims to build enough solar power stations by 2050 to supply 50 per cent of the energy used by humanity.

The idea is to begin by building a small number of silicon manufacturing plants in the Sahara, each turning the desert sand into the high-quality silicon needed to build solar panels. Once those panels are operating, some of the energy they generate will be used to build more silicon plants, each churning out more solar panels and generating more energy that can be used to build even more plants, and so on.

Hideomi Koinuma at the University of Tokyo leads the Japanese end of the project. He admits that making silicon panels from the rough sands of the Sahara or other deserts has not been attempted before, but says it is a logical choice.

"From the viewpoints of quality, quantity and chemistry, Sahara sand is hard to beat for use as silicon for solar cells," he says.
Rivals for power

The Algerian-Japanese effort is by no means alone in targeting the Sahara for solar power. The Desertec Foundation, set up last year to promote "clean power from deserts", also aims to generate solar power in the region.

Desertec has a more modest goal – it is dedicated to supplying only 15 per cent of Europe's electricity by 2050. Nor does Desertec plan to use Sahara sand for its solar panels.

Desertec hails the new breeder project as "a positive contribution towards climate protection". However, a spokesman said he was puzzled over the choice of energy delivery by the new scheme.

Koinuma wants to use "high-temperature" superconductors to distribute the power as direct current – more efficient than a conventional alternating current. Despite their name, high-temperature superconductors typically operate at around -240 °C, and the long power lines will require a formidable cooling system.

"There is not really a need for superconductors. By using high-voltage direct current transmission lines it is possible to transport clean power from the deserts over long distances to centres of consumption," says the Desertec spokesman – adding that the technology is already used in dozens of projects worldwide.

"Transmission losses are fairly low – around 3 per cent per 1000 kilometres. Unlike superconductors, there is no need for cooling, while power transmission costs are just 1¢ to 2¢ per kilowatt-hour."

Koinuma disagrees. He sees the potential for linking the Sahara-powered stations to a special network of supercooled high-voltage DC grids for transporting electricity 500 kilometres or more.

"Even if we need to cool the grid line with liquid nitrogen, the system could be cost-competitive," he claims.

Sahara Solar Breeder Project aims to provide 50 percent of the world’s electricity by 2050
By Darren Quick
20:54 November 24, 2010

This is ambition with a capital A. Universities in Japan and Algeria have teamed up on a project that aims to solve the world’s energy problems. Called the Sahara Solar Breeder Project, the plan is to build manufacturing plants around the Sahara Desert and extract silica from sand to make solar panels, which will then be used to build solar power plants in the desert. The power generated by the initial plant or plants would be used to “breed” more silicon manufacturing and solar power plants, which will in turn be used to breed more again, and so on. The ultimate goal is to build enough plants to provide 50 percent of the world’s electricity by 2050, which would be delivered via a global superconducting supergrid.

To turn the world’s biggest desert into the world’s biggest power station the Sahara Solar Breeder Project aims to take advantage of two resources that are found in abundance in the Sahara – silica and sunlight. However, to make such an ambitious plan a reality there are more than a few hurdles that will need to be overcome. For example, there is currently no technology for making silicon from desert sand, then using it to make solar cells. Also, connecting the desert power supply to the world will require cables that must be cooled with liquid nitrogen and placed underground to minimize temperature fluctuations.

Initial research

That is why the project, which is getting underway this year, will initially focus on the development of the basic technology to make the project practical. Specifically, demonstrating the possibility of manufacturing high-purity silicon from desert sand, which is the key to the project, and constructing a high-temperature superconducting, long-distance, DC power supply system. With the initial aim of producing a 100 kW solar cell in 2011, the project ultimately aims to achieve a solar plant with an annual capacity of at least 100 GW by 2050.

“While we develop technology for using desert sand to make just one ton of silicon per year, or actually build just one power plant in the desert, all sorts of problems, such as sandstorms, will arise. And we will obtain basic data for solving those problems,” says project leader Hideomi Koinuma, who calls the project the Super Apollo Project, referencing both the Greek god of light and the sun, and NASA’s Apollo project that put man on the moon.

The research is a joint project between Japanese and Algerian universities, including Tokyo University, the National Institute for Materials Science, Hirosaki University, Tokyo Institute of Technlogy, Chubu University and the Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran, through the International Research Project on Global Issues by Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (JST) and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). But the project participants recognize that, ultimately, the task will require a worldwide effort, particularly among North African countries.

Koinuma says the total research expenditure of the project will be 100 million yen (just under US$2 million) annually for five years. He admits that won’t be enough to see the project completed but hopes it will establish the basic technology for providing the ultimate solution to the world’s energy problems.
Training for developing counties

Subscribing to the "give a man a fish and he eats for a day, but teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime" philosophy, another major aim of the project is to train scientists and engineers from developing countries. To that end, the project won’t just bring well-understood technology from developed countries, but will involve people from both developing and developed countries working together on R&D right from the outset.

“Because technology hasn't yet been established for making silicon from desert sand, then using it to make solar cells, our aim is to work together from the basic research stage, so we can discover and nurture talented scientists and engineers in Africa," said Koinuma.

The project definitely has some lofty and worthy aims. We can only wish them well in their endeavors and hope this is one project that achieves its ambitious goals.

French articles

samedi 11 décembre 2010

Séance de travail JICA-CDER dans le cadre du projet "Sahara Solar Breeder Research Center"Dans le cadre du projet "Sahara Solar Breeder Research Center", une séance de travail entre le Centre de Développement des Energies ( CDER ) et l'Agence Japonaise de Coopération Internationale (JICA) se tiendra le 14 décembre au siège du CDER Bouzareah. Des entretiens aur! ont lieu entre le Docteur Hideomi Koinuma, Directeur du projet du côté ! japonais et des chercheurs du CDER afin renforcer le réseau de chercheurs algéro-japonais dans le domaine de l'énergie solaire. Monsieur Takashi Kawahara, Docteur spécialiste en supra-conducteurs de l'Université de Chubu, le Docteur Yojiro Kitamura de l'institut arabe de l'économie ainsi que des professeurs de l'université des sciences et de la technologie d'Oran ( USTO ) participeront à cette séance de travail en tant que représentants du projet "Sahara Solar Breeder" SSB. Le projet SSB s'inscrit dans une politique de développement durable et porte sur le développement des technologies du solaire, l'acheminement et l'exploitation de l'énergie produite dans le sud vers le nord pour alimenter des stations de dessalement d'eau. L'USTO bénéficiera dans ce cadre de la création d'un centre de recherche dédié au développement des technologies du solaire avec équipements, formation et le concours permanents d'experts, tandis que Saida et Adrar seront dorées des plates-formes techn! ologiques pour la construction de cellules photovoltaïques et l'exploitation de l'énergie produite.

Une première dans les relations algéro-japonaises
Le ministre nippon des AE à Alger le 12 décembre

le 09.12.10 | 03h00 1 réaction
Le ministre japonais des Affaires étrangères, Seiji Maehara, effectuera les 12 et 13 décembre prochains une visite officielle en Algérie. «Le ministre des Affaires étrangères viendra dans le cadre d’une tournée dans la région du Maghreb.

Il fera une escale à Tunis avant de venir à Alger le 12 décembre. C’est une visite de deux jours ayant pour objectif de renforcer les relations bilatérales entre les deux pays, tant au plan politique qu’économique», indique une source proche de l’ambassade du Japon à Alger. Le programme de la visite, explique notre source, n’a pas encore été rendu public. «C’est le ministère algérien des Affaires étrangères qui devra élaborer ce programme», précise la même source.

Le chef de la diplomatie nippone devra rencontrer le président Abdelaziz Bouteflika ; il s’entretiendra également avec le ministre algérien des AE, Mourad Medelci.

Il est clair que le responsable japonais et les autorités algériennes examineront les possibilités de renforcer la coopération entre les deux pays, en particulier dans le domaine économique. Le ministre japonais devra discuter avec les responsables algériens des questions liées à la coopération, à la promotion de l’investissement japonais en Algérie.

Les Japonais, présents en Algérie avec une quinzaine d’entreprises qui activent en particulier dans les hydrocarbures, s’intéressent également au développement des énergies renouvelables, notamment l’énergie solaire. Dans ce sens, notre source révèle l’intention du pays du Soleil-Levant de développer le Sahara Solar Breeder (SSB) ou Super Apollo, qui ressemble à l’initiative allemande Desertec. «Il y a une coopération entre l’Université des sciences d’Oran (USTO) et des chercheurs japonais de l’université de Tokyo pour la création d’un centre de recherche sur le développement des technologies solaires pour appuyer le projet Apollo», affirme-t-on. Le projet japonais prévoit la production de silicium, qui entre dans la fabrication des panneaux photovoltaïques, à partir du sable du désert. Ce qui est une nouveauté.

Le ministre japonais tentera également d’obtenir des autorités algériennes plus d’informations sur les dernières mesures économiques prises. Des informations que les opérateurs japonais veulent comprendre avant de s’engager dans le marché algérien.

Madjid Makedhi (El Watan news paper)

Algérie-Japon : concertations politiques et signature d’un mémorandum

Première visite à Alger d’un chef de la diplomatie japonaise.
Dans un communiqué, l’ambassade du Japon à Alger annonce la visite de deux jours, aujourd’hui, du chef de la diplomatie japonaise, durant lesquels il aura des entretiens avec le chef de l’Etat, le Premier ministre et son homologue algérien. «L’Algérie qui a traversé plusieurs étapes dans la guerre pour son indépendance occupe une place de leader au sein des pays non alignés et a une voix qui s’impose dans la communauté internationale», mentionne le communiqué. «A cet effet, Tokyo considère très important de collaborer et coopérer étroitement avec l’Algérie afin de résoudre les problèmes internationaux», souligne le document. Alger, par son approche politique visant la promotion de relations bilatérales multiples, se trouve dans une position confortable dans ses diverses discussions avec ses partenaires. Tokyo et Alger qui ont œuvré de concert à asseoir une base d’un partenariat gagnant-gagnant, large et diversifié, verront durant la visite de M. Seiji Maehara à Alger, la relance d’une nouvelle étape, couronnant ce qui a été précédemment réalisé. Dans le domaine scientifique, il sera question du lancement, dès janvier 2011, d’un nouveau programme de développement des technologies solaires appelé «Sahara Solar Breeder». Un projet qui s’inscrit dans le cadre de la coopération entre l’Algérie et le Japon dans le domaine de la recherche et du développement de l’industrie solaire, la technologie japonaise sera, ainsi, profitable à l’Algérie. Tokyo considère que le marché algérien est «l’un des principaux pour l’implantation des industries japonaises», d’autant que le plan quinquennal 2010-2014, d’un coût de 286 milliards de dollars, offre beaucoup d’opportunités. A ce propos, «il importe que le gouvernement japonais offre son assistance pour encourager les activités des entreprises japonaises sur le marché algérien», souligne l’ambassade du Japon. Autre volet qui n’est pas des moindres, le dialogue politique entre les deux pays. Le Japon, par le biais de son ambassade à Alger, relève dans le communiqué précité «la nécessité de l’ouverture rapide de la concertation politique» entre Alger et Tokyo. Ce qui sera d’ailleurs au cœur de la visite du chef de la diplomatie japonaise. On assistera à la signature d’un mémorandum sur les consultations politiques bilatérales, définissant le cadre de la concertation touchant divers domaines. Il est à noter que la visite de M. Seiji Maehara intervient au moment où les deux pays «fêtent» le cinquantième anniversaire de l’établissement de leurs relations diplomatiques. Ce qui constitue un repère pour les deux pays quant à la dynamisation de leurs relations bilatérales. Cette visite permettra des échanges et concertations entre M. Seiji Maehara et le chef de l’Etat sur les questions de paix et de sécurité, et sur la réforme en cours de l’institution onusienne. A ce sujet, Tokyo a exprimé sa volonté de «coopérer étroitement» avec Alger dans la «résolution des problèmes internationaux, la reforme du Conseil de sécurité et la question des changements climatique».

Karima Bennour

Bientôt à l’université des sciences d’Oran : Un Projet de développement des technologies solaires pour 2011
Un projet de développement des technologies solaires sera bientôt concrétisé à l’université des sciences et de la technologie Mohamed-Boudiaf d’Oran.

PUBLIE LE : 30-10-2010 | 20:38

Un projet de développement des technologies solaires sera bientôt concrétisé à l’université des sciences et de la technologie Mohamed-Boudiaf d’Oran. Ce projet s’intitule «Projet SSB» (Sahara Solar Breeder) en référence à la plate-forme technologique dite ferme solaire expérimentale. Ce projet est le fruit d'une coopération entre l'Université des sciences et technologies d'Oran (USTO) et deux agences nippones, l'Agence japonaise à la coopération internationale (JICA) et l'Agence japonaise des sciences et technologies (JSTA).

En visite à l’Université des sciences et de la technologie Mohamed-Boudiaf d’Oran (USTO), l’ambassadeur du Japon en Algérie, M. Takeshi Kamitani a indiqué « Ce projet s’inscrit dans le cadre de la coopération entre les deux pays dans le domaine de la recherche et du développement de l’industrie solaire ». Il a ajouté « Le partenariat algéro-japonais est appelé à se développer davantage dans tous les domaines, tant au niveau académique que technologique ». L’USTO bénéficiera dans ce cadre, de la création d’un centre de recherches dédié au développement des technologies solaires.

Mme Benharrat Nacéra, vice-rectrice chargée des relations internationales et de la coopération a fait savoir qu’«Un délai de cinq ans a été assigné à la concrétisation de cette opération entièrement financée par la partie japonaise, avec une enveloppe budgétaire de 5 millions de dollars».

L’USTO bénéficiera également d’une dotation en équipements, de formations et du concours permanent d’experts, tandis que l’université de Saïda et le centre de recherches sur l’énergie solaire d’Adrar auront des plate-formes technologiques pour la construction de cellules photovoltaïques et l’exploitation de l’énergie produite, a précisé la vice-recteur.

Elle a souligné que «le projet SSB s’inscrit dans le cadre des objectifs de développement durable, puisqu’il permettra l’acheminement et l’exploitation de l’énergie produite dans le Sud vers le nord du pays pour alimenter des stations de dessalement».

Ce programme avait été entériné, en août dernier, par la signature d’une convention entre le ministère de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche scientifique, l’USTO, et deux agences japonaises (JICA et JSTA) dédiées à la coopération internationale, aux sciences et à la technologie. Un consortium d’universités japonaises comprenant celles de Tokyo, d’Hirosaki, de Chubu, l’Institut national de l’informatique et l’Institut national de sciences des matériaux, est associé à ce projet aux côtés des établissements algériens précités.
A. Fadila (news paper El Moudjahid)

Arabic articles
ملايين دولار لإنجاز مركز تطوير تكنولوجيات الطاقة الشمسية بالجزائر
Wednesday, October 27
الموضوع : الوطــن
قررت الجزائر واليابان إطلاق برنامج مشترك لتطوير تكنولوجيات الطاقة الشمسية شهر جانفي الداخل، يتكفل خلاله الجانب الياباني بإنجاز مركز للبحوث مخصص لتطوير هذه التكنولوجيات على مستوى جامعة وهران بقيمة 5 ملايين دولار.


سيتعزز التعاون الجزائري الياباني في المجال العلمي ابتداء من شهر جانفي القادم، بانطلاق برنامج لتطوير تكنولوجيات الطاقة الشمسية، هذا ما أعلنه سفير اليابان بالجزائر طاكيشي كاميتاني، خلال زيارته إلى جامعة العلوم والتكنولوجية »محمد بوضياف« بوهران، وهو المشروع الذي قال السفير إنه »يندرج في إطار التعاون المشترك بين البلدين في مجال البحث وتطوير الصناعة ذات الصلة بالطاقة الشمسية«، مشددا لدى افتتاحه التظاهرة الثقافية اليابانية المنظمة بقاعة المحاضرات لجامعة »محمد بوضياف« على أن »الشراكة الجزائرية-اليابانية مدعوة إلى التطور أكثر فأكثر في جميع الميادين بما فيها الجانبين الأكاديمي والتكنولوجي«.

وحسب التوضيحات التي قدمتها نائبة مدير الجامعة المكلفة بالعلاقات الدولية والتعاون بن حراث نصيرة، فإن المشروع الذي سينطلق بداية جانفي المقبل، سيحمل اسم »أس أس بي« استنادا إلى الأرضية التكنولوجية المسماة المزرعة الشمسية التجريبية المبرمج انجازها بسعيدة، معلنة عن أن جامعة العلوم والتكنولوجية بوهران ستستفيد في هذا الإطار من مركز للبحوث مخصص لتطوير تكنولوجيات الطاقة الشمسية، والتي أكدت أن فترة تجسيد المشروع قد حددت بخمس سنوات على أن يتكفل الطرف الياباني بتمويلها وبشكل كلي بغلاف مالي قدره خمسة ملايين دولار.

وواصلت نائبة مدير جامعة وهران، مشيرة إلى أن الجامعة ستستفيد أيضا من هبة ممثلة في تجهيزات ودورات تكوينية بمساهمة دائمة لخبراء، بينما ستحظى كل من جامعة سعيدة ومركز البحث في الطاقة الشمسية لأدرار بأرضيات تكنولوجية من أجل انجاز لوحات لتوليد الطاقة الشمسية واستغلال الطاقة المنتجة، لتضيف أن مشروع »أس أس بي« يندرج في إطار أهداف التنمية المستدامة باعتباره سيسمح بإيصال واستغلال الطاقة المنتجة بالجنوب نحو الشمال قصد تزويد محطات تحلية مياه البحر.

يذكر أن المشروع قد اعتمد شهر أوت المنصرم بالتوقيع على اتفاقية بين كل من وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي وجامعة العلوم والتكنولوجية »محمد بوضياف «بوهران والوكالتين اليابانيتان »جي. أي. سي. أ« و»جي. أس. تي. أ.« المهتمتين بالتعاون الدولي والعلوم والتكنولوجية.

كشف السفير الياباني في الجزائر، طاكيشي كاميتاني، أن التعاون بين البلدين سيتعزز في المجال العلمي ابتداء من شهر جانفي 2011، بانطلاق برنامج لتطوير تكنولوجيات الطاقة الشمسية

وأشار السفير خلال الزيارة التي قام بها الى جامعة العلوم والتكنولوجية ”محمد بوضياف” بوهران أن هذا المشروع الجديد يندرج في إطار التعاون بين البلدين في مجال البحث وتطوير الصناعة ذات الصلة بالطاقة الشمسية.

وأوضح خلال افتتاحه التظاهرة الثقافية اليابانية المنظمة بذات الجامعة أن الشراكة الجزائرية-اليابانية مدعوة الى التطور أكثر فأكثر في جميع الميادين بما فيها الجانبين الأكاديمي والتكنولوجي، ويحمل هذا المشروع الذي سينطلق في شهر جانفي 2011 اسم ”أس أس بي” أي صحراء سولار بريدر استنادا إلى الأرضية التكنولوجية المسماة المزرعة الشمسية التجريبية المبرمج إنجازها بسعيدة. وأشارت من جهتها نائبة مدير الجامعة مكلفة بالعلاقات الدولية والتعاون، بن حراث نصيرة، أن جامعة العلوم والتكنولوجية ”محمد بوضياف” ستستفيد في هذا الإطار من مركز للبحوث مخصص لتطوير تكنولوجيات الطاقة الشمسية، وأضافت أنه قد تم تحديد مدة خمس سنوات لتجسيد هذه العملية التي سيتكفل بتمويلها وبشكل كلي الطرف الياباني بغلاف مالي قدره 5 ملايين دولار. وحسب المصدر ذاته فإن الجامعة المذكورة ستستفيد أيضا من هبة ممثلة في تجهيزات ودورات تكوينية وبمساهمة دائمة لخبراء بينما ستحظى كل من جامعة سعيدة ومركز البحث في الطاقة الشمسية لأدرار بأرضيات تكنولوجية من أجل إنجاز لوحات لتوليد الطاقة الشمسية واستغلال الطاقة المنتجة. وأضافت بن حراث في نفس السياق أن مشروع ”أس أس بي” يندرج في إطار أهداف التنمية المستدامة باعتبار أنه سيسمح بإيصال واستغلال الطاقة المنتجة بالجنوب نحو الشمال قصد تزويد محطات تحلية مياه البحر.

وللإشارة، يشارك في المشروع مجمع يتكون من جامعات يابانية يضم تلك الواقعة بطوكيو وهيروزاكي وشوبو والمعهدين الوطنيين للإعلام الآلي وعلوم المواد.


Italian articles

Nel 2050 metà dell’energia mondiale arriverà dal deserto del Sahara
Scritto da Pasquale Veltri    Lunedì 13 Dicembre 2010 13:43  


‘Sahara Breeder Solar Project’ è il nome di un imponente progetto giapponese e algerino che ha l'obiettivo dichiarato di fornire il 50 per cento dell'energia mondiale entro il 2050, producendo elettricità nel deserto del Sahara.

Il Sahara è il più vasto deserto della Terra con circa nove milioni di chilometri quadrati, una lunghezza di circa quattromila chilometri e una larghezza di oltre millecinquecento chilometri; tuttavia i suoi confini non possono essere ben definiti perché la linea varia continuamente. 

L'idea di base del progetto è che nel deserto c'è disponibilità illimitata dei due elementi principali per impianti a energia solare: il sole e la sabbia da cui ricavare il silicio, il quale naturalmente necessita di essere estratto e lavorato, prima di essere impiegato all'interno dei pannelli.

Si partirebbe quindi da un impianto di dimensioni ridotte in grado di fornire l'energia necessaria alla produzione di altro silicio e altri pannelli e così via, aumentando le dimensioni del complesso, fino a poter produrre energia elettrica da immettere in una rete appositamente costruita e collegata con quella di altri paesi.

Nel 2050 questo impianto dovrebbe fornire la metà dell’energia mondiale. Detta così, sembra una bella soluzione e verrebbe da chiedersi perché qualcuno non ci abbia pensato prima. In realtà, l'dea di impiantare una centrale di produzione in mezzo al deserto del Sahara non è nuova.

Esistono almeno altri due progetti altrettanto faraonici, relativamente diversi ma forse meno ambiziosi: uno è quello della 'Fondazione Desertec' che ha l’obiettivo di fornire entro il 2050 il 15 per cento dell'energia utilizzata in Europa; l'altro è quello denominato ‘Transgreen’, altrettanto interessante e che coinvolge l'Europa e l'Africa. Si tratta di progetti apparentemente realistici e promettenti, che potrebbero davvero contribuire ad aumentare la quota di energia prodotta da fonti rinnovabili.

Le rilevazioni e le previsioni a medio e a lungo termine dell'IEA, l'Agenzia Internazionale per l'Energia, sono fra le più importanti e utilizzate per le strategie politiche ed economiche dalla comunità internazionale. Secondo le statistiche dell’Agenzia, attualmente circa il 27 per cento dell'energia a livello mondiale viene dispersa nella generazione e nel trasporto dell'energia stessa.

E' proprio questo un punto strategico del 'Sahara Breeder Solar Project', il quale prevede di risolvere questo problema utilizzando, per il trasporto dell'energia, linee a superconduttori, i quali però presentano criticità tecniche di non poco conto, come per esempio la condizione che la temperatura dei superconduttori debba mantenersi a molti gradi sotto lo zero.

Per avere un quadro generale della situazione energetica mondiale e sul fabbisogno di energia da parte dei vari settori (industria, terziario etc.), è utile consultare il report che ogni anno viene commissionato e pubblicato dalla ‘Exxon Mobil’, la più grande compagnia petrolifera mondiale.

Il 2030 è l'anno generalmente tenuto come punto di riferimento per tutte le proiezioni e dalla maggior parte degli studi sul settore energetico. L'ultimo rapporto disponibile, che si chiama 'The Outlook for Energy', è stato pubblicato a dicembre del 2009, ed è disponibile in italiano, anche se in forma riassuntiva.

Si tratta di uno studio molto aggiornato e ricco di dettagli, creato attraverso una profonda analisi delle caratteristiche di un centinaio di paesi, di quindici settori di domanda e venti tipologie di combustibili, e tiene conto di proiezioni demografiche ed economiche e della progressione delle tecnologie.

Per il 2030 si prevede che il mondo sarà abitato da otto miliardi di esseri umani; si prevede lo sviluppo industriale di molti paesi emergenti e un fabbisogno di energia in costante aumento. Le energie rinnovabili cresceranno molto rapidamente a un tasso medio del 10 per cento annuo e, sempre nel 2030, le rinnovabili permetteranno di produrre 'solo' il 2,5 per cento del totale del fabbisogno mondiale di energia. Le previsioni per il momento non vanno oltre il 2030, quando al 2050 mancheranno ancora due decenni; oggi il 2050 è davvero troppo lontano per poter sperare in previsioni attendibili.

Pasquale Veltri

Japanese articles

サハラの砂から太陽電池材料  JICA・東大
 日本と北アフリカ諸国が、ほぼ無尽蔵にある砂で太陽電池を作る共同研究をサハラ砂漠で始める。国際協力機構(JICA)や東京大学はアルジェリア高等教 育・科学研究省などと2015年までの計画に合意、5年で電池原料の生産技術にメドをつける。チュニジアの産官を交えた研究組織も12月に立ち上げた。
 いずれも日差しに恵まれた現地で電池原料のシリコンを安く量産し、将来の発電事業に発展させる計画だ。太陽電池はケイ石から作る半導体向けシリコンの転 用が多い。太陽電池の普及でシリコン不足が懸念される。太陽光発電を成長産業と考える北アフリカ諸国と、発電事業にも関わりたい日本側が研究の必要性で一 致した。

Chinese articles

发布时间: 2010-12-18  |   作者:刘霞

2010年12月18日 来源: 科技日报 作者: 刘霞

 本报讯  据英国《新科学家》杂志网站近日报道,日本和阿尔及利亚大学的科学家正在携手进行“撒哈拉沙漠太阳能孵化项目”,他们希望有效利用撒哈拉沙漠丰富的太阳光 和沙子,于2050年之前建立起足够多的太阳能发电站,为人类提供50%的能源。

 科学家的设想如下:刚开始在撒哈拉沙漠建立少量硅制造工厂,将沙漠中的沙子变成制造太阳能电池板所需要的高质量硅。一旦这些太阳能电池板开始运作,它们 生产的部分能源就可以用于建造更多的硅厂,每个硅厂都能制造出更多的太阳能电池板并且生产更多的能源,然后再用于制造更多的硅厂,如此循环往复。

 日本东京大学的鲤沼英臣是该项目日方的领导人,他承认,以前还未曾有人尝试过使用撒哈拉或其他沙漠的粗沙来制造硅电池板,但他表示,这是一个合情合理的 选择。他认为,从数量、质量和化学方法的角度来说,撒哈拉沙漠的沙子都可以被用来制造太阳能电池所需要的硅。

 日本和阿尔及利亚的科学家组成的团队并非唯一一个想要将撒哈拉沙漠变成太阳能发电站的团队,去年成立的以从沙漠获取绿色能源为宗旨的“沙科基金会”也希 望在该地区生产太阳能。

 相比较而言,沙科的目标更为保守,它希望到2050年为欧洲提供15%的能源,而且,沙科也不打算使用撒哈拉沙漠的沙子来制造太阳能电池板。沙科称这个 新的孵化项目“为遏制气候变化作出了积极的贡献”。

 鲤沼英臣团队希望使用“高温超导体”将生产出的能源作为直流电(直流电比传统交流电更有效)分发到各地。尽管是高温超导体,但其工作温度为零下240摄 氏度,因此,长长的输电线需要高质量的冷却系统。

 沙科基金会发言人表示,不需要高温超导体,高电压直流电传输线也能让沙漠中生产的清洁能源经过漫长的跋涉源源不断地前往各消费中心。他表示,目前全球有 几十个项目已经使用了该技术,其电力传输损失非常低,每1000公里大约损失3%;也不必使用冷却系统,因此,能源传输成本很低。

 鲤沼英臣却不这样认为,他表示,将撒哈拉的发电站同一个特殊的超冷高压直流电网(主要用于将电流传输500公里或更远距离)连接在一起或许会更有潜力。 即使需要液态氮来冷却电网线,该系统仍然具有很高的成本竞争优势。

(刘霞) (科技日报)

与突尼斯合作 日本在撒哈拉发展太阳能发电
2010年12月21日13:25 来源:人民网-环保频道


 两国将在撒哈拉沙漠合作建设一座太阳能发电厂。撒哈拉沙漠正在迅速成为最具创新性的太阳能发电项目选址的热点区域。对于日本来说、与突尼斯合作开发太阳 能 是令人鼓舞的、表明日本与邻居中国和韩国一样、开始热衷于拓展其对全世界可持续商业的参与、并与其他国家合作开发可再生能源项目。

 与突尼斯签署协议、并非是日本与阿拉伯国家在太阳能相关的可持续商业项目上的首次合作。在“撒哈拉太阳能孵化项目” (Sahara Solar Breeder Project)中、日本的大学就开始与阿尔及利亚的同行展开合作。“撒哈拉太阳能孵化项目”雄心勃勃、希望在2050年之前满足全世界一半的电力需求。 撒哈拉沙漠里竞相建设大型太阳能发电厂的原因很简单:撒哈拉沙漠能够接收大量的太阳光、并且与主要的能源消费地区欧洲相邻。有效利用太阳能可以帮助人类摆 脱化石燃料。

 不仅如此、沙子中含有的硅也是制造太阳能电池板的基本原料。以建设能够从沙子中生产可用硅的制造工厂为起点、“撒哈拉太阳能孵化项目”将利用可用硅制造 太 阳能电池板、太阳能电池板生产更多的能量、用于将更多的沙子转换为硅。在理论上、这种自我供给和建设的进程可以持续数十年。如果一切进展顺利、整个撒哈拉 沙漠里的太阳能发电项目就可以利用可再生能源、将当地资源制成太阳能发电设备、用于生产更多的可再生电力。很难再想象一个比这更好的可持续商业模式了。

 在撒哈拉沙漠及其周边地区发展太阳能、能够帮助目前以石油出口为生的国家通向一个不再以化石燃料为动力的未来。历史上、一些严重依赖石油的国家、比如沙 特 阿拉伯、一直是国际气候协议最强烈的反对者。如果这些国家将可持续商业项目作为一个经济发展的机遇、在签署气候协议的时候、可能就不会那么不情愿了。

 在国际范围内大规模推动沙漠太阳能发电发展的浪潮中、日本与突尼斯合作建设的太阳能项目可能并不是一笔大交易。不过、要把撒哈拉沙漠转变为主要发电区 域、将耗费数年甚至数十年的时间、并且还需要发展中国家与发达国家之间的深入合作。(薛亮)


Russian articles

Совместный проект ученых из Алжира и Японии обещает превратить пустыню Сахара в лес… солнечных батарей, способных к 2050 г. обеспечить до половины мировых потребностей в электроэнергии.
Для начала проект Sahara Solar Breeder (SSB) подразумевает возведение в пустыне завода по производству панелей солнечных батарей, благо основного материала для их изготовления – песка – вокруг предостаточно. Ожидается, что из его продукции будет тут же построена первая солнечная электростанция, которая обеспечит энергией расширенное производство солнечных батарей, которое позволит построить новую электростанцию, которая… и так далее.
Ожидается, что произведенная электроэнергия будет аккумулироваться, передаваясь по сверхпроводниковым проводам. Конечно, такие установки потребуют охлаждения до температур порядка -240° C. Однако, по расчетам авторов проекта, даже при этом полученная энергия будет достаточно дешевой для потребителя.
Вообще, по словам представителя японской стороны Хидеоми Коинумы (Hideomi Koinuma), «до сих пор никто не пытался использовать песок пустынь в качестве исходного материала для получения высокочистого кремния, который требуется для производства панелей солнечных батарей». Но и это – не единственная технологическая сложность, которую предстоит решить авторам проекта. Так, им обязательно придется учесть необходимость работы в условиях нередких в Сахаре песчаных бурь. Видимо, для защиты от ветров и перепадов температур немалую часть всей установки и проводов придется устанавливать под песком, где условия намного более стабильны.
Напомним, что нынешним летом солнечная энергетика преодолела важный рубеж: стоимость добываемого ей электричества сравнялась со стоимостью энергии, получаемой из традиционных источников. Читайте: «Паритет достигнут».
По публикации PhysOrg.Com
 Добавлено: 10.12.10

Новости дня
Как превратить Сахару в солнечную электростанцию?

06 декабря 2010г. 14:50

Совместная группа, состоящая из сотрудников нескольких Университетов Японии и Алжира, решила превратить самую большую в мире пустыню в самую крупную в мире солнечную электростанцию. По расчетам специалистов, к 2050 году она сможет снабжать электричеством почти половину планеты, причем по низкой себестоимости. Подобные грандиозные планы ученые строят в рамках проекта под названием «Sahara Solar Breeder Project».

Вышеупомянутый проект исходит из того, что через 40 лет появятся кремниевые солнечные панели с КПД, которое в несколько раз превысит панели, существующие в наши дни. В основе этих панелей будет тот же кремний, но добываться он будет из песка в Сахаре. По словам ученых, к 2050 году в пустыне будет более чем реально построить солнечную электростанцию. Она займет десятки километров, и будет состоять из пару сотен тысяч отдельных солнечных панелей.
Профессор Хидеоми Коинума, сотрудник Университета Токио, который руководит проектом Sahara Solar Breeder Project, рассказал, что сейчас основной задачей является создание дешевых панелей с высоким коэффициентом полезного действия, которые смогли бы эффективно преобразовать солнечный свет в энергию (электричество). Также он отметил, что одно из преимуществ проекта – это то, что производство солнечных панелей планируют открыть здесь же в пустыне.

Исследователи рассчитали, что даже при современном уровне развития производства вполне возможно создание 500-километровых солнечных станций, которые бы генерировали до 100 Гигаватт электричества. Конечно, как говорит японский ученый, без трудностей не обойтись. Например, пыльные бури, ведь надо научиться как-то быстро очищать после них панели. Потом, доставка и хранение водорода, который охлаждает солнечные панели во время их работы, а также минимизирует эффект от резких температурных перепадов в пустыне (днем температура может достигать 50 Cо, а ночью падает до 0 Со).
Оборудование для электростанции в пустыне – турбины и солнечные панели – будет производить компания Siemens. Расположится станция на территории нескольких беднейших стран Африки.

По предварительным подсчетам, стоимость проекта может составить 400-450 млрд. евро, а площадь электростанции превысит 130 км2. Расположить станцию планируют на севере Сахары.
«Сейчас мы имеем уже все технологии, необходимые для реализации проекта такого масштаба. Главной нашей задачей является объединение юридических и политических аспектов данного проекта. Необходимо достать соглашение о кросс граничной торговле, позволяющее поставлять электроэнергию в страны Европы», - рассказал директор программ возобновляемой энергетики Greenpeace, Свен Тэске.
В рамках проекта планируется создание сети разветвленных кабелей, проходящих в Европу по дну Средиземного моря. По таким высоковольтным проводам в будущем Siemens планирует подавать электричество от ветровых, а не только от солнечных электростанций. Ветровые станции тоже можно разместить на открытых участках Сахары.
Эксперты Greenpeace рассказали, что сегодня на нашей планете проживает 6,8 миллиардов человек. И если бы в наши дни были технологии, которые способны на 100% преобразовывать всю солнечную энергию, попадающую на Землю, то можно было бы за счет солнечной энергетики генерировать в 2 800 раз больше электроэнергии, чем производится в настоящее время за счет всех источников энергии, на каждого жителя планеты.

Однако Ларс Йозефссон, глава концерна Vattenfall, уверен в «нереалистичности» проекта поставок солнечной энергии в Европу. Он считает, что использование полученной электроэнергии будет целесообразней в Африке.
Также глава концерна выразил сомнение в том, что проект поставки энергии из Сахары в Европу неосуществим. Он считает сумму в 400 миллиардов евро «чудовищно большой».
«Ещё одним препятствием могут стать чересчур большие растраты на транспортировку электроэнергии. Я считаю, что это проект нереалистичен», - заключил Ларс Йозефссон. Кроме того, он отметил, что нельзя забывать и об угрозе террористических актов. Однако выход из ситуации есть, глава концерна сказал: «Европе лучше производить энергию на территории Европы».
Текст: Мария Колумбет

Korean articles

사하라 사막의 태양 발전을 육성하는 일광과 모래

사막이 보유하고 있는 무한한 자원인 일광(sunlight)과 모래(sand)가 태양 발전을 조성 및 육성하는 데 도움을 줄 수 있다고 함
일본과 알제리에 있는 대학의 조인트 이니셔티브인 사하라 태양 발전 육성 프로젝트(Sahara Solar Breeder Project)는 2050년까지 인류가 사용한 에너지의 약 50%를 공급하기에 충분한 태양 발전소 구축을 목표로 함

태양열 집열판(solar panel)을 구축하는 데 필요한 우수한 질을 갖춘 실리콘(silicon)으로 사막의 모래를 전환시키는 실리콘 제조 공장을 사하라 사막에 구축함
일단 태양열 집열판의 운영으로 생성된 에너지의 일부가 실리콘 공장을 구축하는 데 이용되고, 따라서 더 많이 제조된 태양열 집열판을 통하여 에너지 생산이 더욱 증가되며, 이것은 다시 실리콘 제조 공장의 건설로 이어짐
이 프로젝트를 주도한 일본 도쿄 대학(University of Tokyo) 소속의 Hideomi Koinuma 는, 사하라 또는 다른 사막의 거친 모래에서 실리콘 집열판을 제조하는 것은 최초의 시도이자 논리적인 선택임. 질, 양 및 화학의 관점에서 사하라 모래는 태양 전지에 사용될 실리콘으로 이용되기 어렵다고 함

2009년 사막에 청정 발전을 독려하기 위하여 설립된 재단인 Desertec Foundation은 역시 사막 지역에서 태양 발전 생성을 목표로 하고 있음

Estonian article

Sahara kõrb toidab 2050. aastaks energiaga poolt maailma?
06. detsember 2010 12:27 
Alžeeria ja Jaapani ülikoolid ühisprojekti raames kavatsetakse muuta maailma suurim kõrb Sahara selliste päikeseelektrijaamade arenduspargiks, mis võiksid aastal 2050 rahuldada poole maailma elektrienergia-vajadusest. 
Sahara päikesepaneelide aretusprojekt Sahara Solar Breeder Project näeb ette kõrbesse ränitootmistehase rajamist, mis rafineeriks liivas leiduva räni piisavalt puhtaks, et seda saaks kasutada päikesepaneelides. Päikeseelektrijaamad rajatakse nendest päikesepaneelidest saadud energia toel, millest osa suunatakse uute ränitehaste konstrueerimisse, et toota veel rohkem päikesepaneele, et toota veel rohkem elektrit, jne, vahendab PhysOrg.
Jaapani töörühma juht, Tokyo ülikooli teadlane Hideomi Koinuma ütles, et ehkki keegi pole kvaliteetse räni saamiseks varem kõrbeliiva pruukinud, on see ometi loogiline valik, ning kinnitas, et tulemus saab piisavalt kvaliteetne.
Päikeseelektrijaamade toodetud energia jaotatakse alalisvooluna laiali nn kuumade ülijuhtide (ingl high-temperature superconductors) kaudu, mis Koinuma kinnitusel on vahelduvvoolu tekitamisest tõhusam protsess. Tema visioon näeb ette ülijahutatud kõrgepinge-alalisvooluvõrkude maatriksit, mille kaudu võiks eeldatavad 100 GW elektrit suunata vähemalt 500 kilomeetri kaugusele. Isegi kui võrku tuleks jahutada vedela lämmastikuga, kujuneks sel moel toodetava elektri hind Koinuma hinnangul ometi konkurentsivõimeliseks.
Kuumadeks ülijuhtideks nimetatakse selliseid materjale, mille omadused säilivad ülijuhtide jaoks väga kõrgel temperatuuril, umbes -240 kraadi juures Celsiuse skaalal.
Sahara päikesepaneelide aretusprojekti (mida Koinuma nimetab projektiks Super Apollo) arendatakse Jaapani teaduse ja tehnoloogia ameti JST ja Jaapani rahvusvahelise koostöö arendamise ameti JICA koostöös rahvusvahelise globaalprobleemide uurimisprojekti raames. Töörühm loodab peagi lahendada hulga takistusi nagu sagedased liivatormid, vajadus kaableid vedela lämmastikuga jahutada ning temperatuurikõikumiste kahandamiseks sügavale liiva alla matta jne.
Esmajärgus keskenduvad uurijad oodatavate takistuste ületamisele ja projekti teostatavuse demonstreerimisele. Üks projekti eesmärke on aga ka aafriklastest inseneride ja teadlaste koolitamine kogu uurimis- ja arendusprotsessi läbiviimiseks.
Mullu käivitati veel üks Sahaaras päikeseenergia kogumisele orienteeritud projekt. Ettevõte Desertec Foundation kavatseb 15 protsenti Euroopa elektrivajadusest rahuldada samuti aastaks 2050, kasutades selleks aga ilma ülijuhtideta konstrueeritud alalis-kõrgepinge-ülekannet.

Indonesian article

Jepang Gunakan Panas Gurun Sahara Jadi Listrik
Mampu Pasokan Energi Separuh Dunia
Minggu, 5 Desember 2010 | 14:39 WIB

TOKYO, TRIBUN - Proyek yang dilakukan oleh universitas di Algeria dan Jepang akan membuat Gurun Sahara jadi sumber energi surya. Ambisi mereka, separuh dunia akan ditenagai sumber energi itu pada tahun 2050.
Proyek bernama Sahara Solar Breeder tersebut dimulai dengan membangun pabrik untuk mengubah silika yang ada di pasir menjadi silokon dengan kualitas yang memadai untuk pembuatan panel surya. Pusat tenaga listrik akan dibuat menggunakan panel surya tersebut. Awalnya, listrik yang dihasilkan akan dipakai untuk menghasilkan jumlah silikon yang lebih banyak.
Hideomi Koinuma dari University of Tokyo sekaligus pemimpin tim Jepang mengatakan kalau belum pernah ada yang memanfaatkan pasir gurun untuk membuat silikon berkualitas tinggi. "Penggunaan pasir itu adalah pilihan tepat dan kualitasnya akan cukup baik," katanya.
Listrik yang dihasilkan akan didistribusikan sebagai arus satu arah menggunakan superkonduktor temperatur tinggi. Koinuma menjelaskan kalau cara ini lebih efisien ketembang menyalurkan listrik dengan arus bolak-balik. Ia membayangkan sebuah jaringan listrik bertegangan tinggi yang bisa menyalurkan listrik 100GW sejauh 500 kilometer.
"Meskipun jaringan ini butuh pendingin super, harganya masih bisa kompetitif," jelas Koinuma. Sebuah superkonduktor temperatur tinggi bisa beroperasi pada suhu 240 derajat Celcius.
Beberapa tantangan yang bakal dihadapi oleh tim adalah badai pasir, penggunaan nitrogen cair untuk mendinginkan kabel, serta mengubur pasir di dalam kabel untuk meminimalkan perubahan temperatur. Penelitian awal yang dilakukan bertujuan untuk mengatasi masalah-masalah ini serta menggambarkan kalau proyek ini bisa dilakukan. Selanjutnya, proyek ini akan melatih insinyur-insinyur serta peneliti dari Afrika untuk penelitian dan pengembangan. (
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Romanian articles
Sahara va produce jumatate din energia Globului, in viitor
Cel mai mare desert al lumii, Sahara, va putea asigura jumatate din consumul electric al lumii, panain 2050, daca proiectul dezvoltat de universitatile din Algeria si Japonia, de montare de centrale electrice solare, va fi dus la indeplinire. 

In cadrul proiectului "Sahara Solar Breeder", cercetatorii propun construirea unei fabrici pentru producerea siliciului, din nisipul desertului, ce ar fi utilizat apoi la fabricarea panourilor solare, care vor furniza energia necesara, informeaza Physorg.
Energia generata de centralele solare plasate in desertul african va fi apoi transportata in marile retele, prin intermediul unor supraconductori de temperaturi inalte, raciti cu azot lichid, ce functioneaza la temperaturi de pana la minus 240 grade Celsius.
Liderul echipei japoneze de cercetatori, Hideomi Koinuma, de la Universitatea din Tokyo, sustine ca, pana acum, nimeni nu s-a gandit sa utilizeze nisipul desertului pentru producerea de siliciu de inalta calitate, folosit la fabricarea panourilor solare.
Fundatia Desertec a lansat, la randu-i, anul trecut, un proiect care isi propune furnizarea a 15% din necesarul de energie electrica al Europei, utilizand de aceasta data liniile electrice aeriene de inalta tensiune.
Brazilian articles

Energia Solar
Cientistas contam com Saara para 50% da energia mundial
Ideia é usar a areia do deserto para construir painéis solares feitos de silício
05/12/2010 – 14:31

O deserto do Saara, no norte da África, poderá ser responsável por 50% do suprimento de energia no mundo até 2050, se depender de uma parceria entre universidades do Japão e da Argélia. Os pesquisadores da Universidade de Tóquio apostam em dois recursos abundantes no maior deserto quente do mundo ― areia e luz do sol ― para fazer prosperar fábricas de painéis solares.

Inicialmente, o projeto, chamado Sahara Solar Breeder Project, pretende construir uma pequena quantidade de fábricas de silício no Saara. Cada uma delas transformaria a areia em silício de alta qualidade, necessário para a construção de painéis solares. Assim que entrarem em operação, os painéis seriam utilizados para gerar energia para a construção de outras fábricas, cada uma delas produzindo mais painéis solares, que ajudariam na construção de mais fábricas, e assim por diante.

O chefe da equipe japonesa envolvida no projeto, Hideomi Koinuma, admite que a produção de painéis solares a partir da areia do Saara ou de outros desertos nunca foi feita antes. Mas acredita ser uma escolha lógica. "Do ponto de vista químico, da qualidade e da quantidade, a areia do Saara é difícil de ser superada", disse Koinuma, em entrevista ao site da revista inglesa New Scientist.

O pesquisador japonês quer utilizar supercondutores de alta temperatura para distribuir a energia como 'corrente contínua' ― mais eficiente que a 'corrente alternada' utilizada pela maioria das distribuidoras de energia. Apesar do nome, os condutores de alta temperatura normalmente operam a -240 graus celsius. Isso quer dizer que as linhas de transmissão precisariam ter um sistema de refrigeração bastante sofisticado.

Concorrente - A parceria nipo-argelina não é o único projeto no Saara em busca da energia solar. A Desertec Foundation, criada em 2009 com o intuito de promover "energia limpa a partir dos desertos", também quer aproveitar o potencial da região. Mas sua estratégia é outra. Para fornecer 15% da energia elétrica consumida pela Europa até 2050, a empresa aposta em usinas termelétricas solares, sem a utilização da areia nem de supercondutores. Trata-se de uma tecnologia mais barata que não precisa de refrigeração e já é utilizada diversos projetos no mundo.

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